As you know, a Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP or BP) is a written list of strategies and supports for an individual which encourages appropriate behaviors and discourages inappropriate behaviors. A Behavior Intervention Plan is created after a Functional Behavior Assessment is conducted which helps identify the function of the behavior or behaviors. Each behavior will need it's own set of strategies. Once you figure out the function or root cause of the behavior, you can tailor your response (tailor the plan) based on the function of the behavior.  Writing the BIP may take some time and collaboration. It will included a few key parts and extra components based on your school district standards. The BIP should include the child’s name, the specific target behavior, the predicted function (based on your data collection from your FBA), strategies to increase appropriate behaviors, strategies to decrease inappropriate behaviors, materials and supports needed to implement the BIP, and skills to be taught to the student in order for him or her to demonstrate appropriate behaviors. The plan should be written in a way that is helpful to the reader and can clearly indicate to the reader what strategies need to be put in place for the student.

in addition to the main components, consider the following additions to the BIP:

*specific environmental supports that are currently put in place to help the student to be successful
*specific 
environmental supports that should be put in place to help the student to be successful 
*
specific preferred items that the child likes and responds well to 

*specific wording that should be used to help the student respond appropriately
*materials that have worked well with the student
*use of a personal schedule or other visual supports
*any additional skills to be taught to the student to help them use or interact with the new behavior supports



NEXT STEPS:
Click here for Interventions for Challenging Behaviors.

Click here for the Behavior Plan Pack to Support the Behavior of Staying with the Group.
                                                             

 

The best intervention is prevention.  Before attempting any reactive strategies, try using as many positive behavior supports (preventative strategies) that you can. Give the interventions some time to work.  They will not work without commitment. Positive behavior supports for the home and school can be found on this site on the Positive Behavior Supports and Preventative Supports page.


Intervention Ideas

After you have identified the function or at least have a good idea of what you think the function of the behavior may be, then it will then be time to come up with some solutions to addressing the target behavior.  Depending on the function of the behavior, your response will be different.

For example, if the student’s behavior is maintained by gaining attention for the behavior, you and your team will have to stop providing attention for that inappropriate behavior.  Another example might be if a student is using a behavior because he wants to escape a task, you and your team may have to figure out a way to make the task easier and provide him with a break (escape) before he takes it upon himself to take the break.  You can always add on more time or work gradually.  For sensory maintained behaviors, talk with the Occupational Therapist to see if they have some ideas for you.  If not, you can provide the input the child needs on a regular basis throughout the day.  If a student’s function is determined to be their access to a tangible item that they want, you and your team can work with the student to learn to request the item in an appropriate manner opposite from the inappropriate way of behaving.

Each of these suggestions is only one of many possible solutions for a Behavior Intervention Plan.  Please know that this is only a small portion of what there is to know regarding interventions. With any Behavior Intervention Plan, it will be important to inform other staff members in the school and family members about the techniques you will be using, so that they are not inadvertently hurting the plan.

A Few More Intervention Ideas

If the Function is

Try one of these options.

Escape or Avoid a Situation

· Put in place Positive Behavior Supports and Preventative Supports

·  Provide a scheduled “escape” before the student engages in the behavior

·  Decrease the difficulty of the activity, then gradually increase the difficulty

·  Teach the student to request a break appropriately

·  Do not stop the activity because of the behavior

Attention from Others

·  Put in place Positive Behavior Supports and Preventative Supports

·  Do not provide attention for inappropriate behavior (no eye contact, no verbal comments, neutral body language)

·  Assist the student into a safe situation without verbal comments

·  Provide an over abundance of attention on a scheduled basis for appropriate behavior and reward for appropriate behavior

Gain Access to a Tangible Item

·  Put in place Positive Behavior Supports and Preventative Supports

·  Teach an appropriate way to ask for the item or activity

·  Teach the student to “wait” using a wait card, timer, or first-then board

·  Use visual supports to show the student when he or she will get the item or activity or to show the item is no longer available

Sensory Input Gained from Behavior

·  Put in place Positive Behavior Supports and Preventative Supports

·  Talk with an Occupational Therapist

·  Provide appropriate sensory input before the student needs it or provide it on a regular basis

·  Provide an alternate behavior that may give the student the same type of sensory input


Click here for Writing a Behavior Plan.

 

 

 

In order to identify the function of the behavior, you must first start by specifically identifying the target behavior in question.  It is not enough to say the child or adult is aggressive or has outbursts.  These descriptors are too vague.  When identifying the target behavior, you will need to be extremely specific.

Examples of target behavior descriptions that are vague and not useful:

aggressive

has outbursts

runs away all the time

screams at adults

grabs food all the time

off task

Examples of target behavior descriptions that are very specific and useful:

hits other students and adults when asked to do work tasks

screams, cries, kicks and throws items when upset

leaves the group activity, without adult permission, several times a day

uses a loud voice to communicate with adults when he is corrected

takes food from others plates during lunch, snack and at home

plays with fingers or pencil during work time

Once you have specifically identified the target behavior or behaviors, you can begin to start observing for that behavior.  If you have a person with many behaviors, it is helpful to only work on a few behaviors at a time (maybe 1 or 2) in order to be truly effective.  This means, that some behaviors will be ignored while you are working on your targeted behaviors.  To observe and keep good data, you will need to determine what type of data sheet you will need.  Using the examples of specific target behaviors above, here are some identified options for collecting data on that behavior:

**hits other students and adults when asked to do work tasks ~~this behavior may require some type of data collection which focuses on frequency.  You will want to record how many times a day this behavior occurs.  It would also be helpful to you to include the time and activity each hit occurs.  If you have an individual that hits “all day”  you will want to record each and every hit.

**screams, cries, kicks and throws items when upset~~this behavior may require some type of data collection which focuses on intensity or duration.  You may want to record how long the screaming, crying, kicking, throwing episodes last or you may want to record how intense they are.  For example, sometimes the person may cry, but other times, he/she may cry, kick and throw items.  The activity and time the behavior happens is also important to record.

**leaves the group activity, without adult permission several times a day~~this behavior may require some type of data collection which focuses on frequency.  You will want to record how many times this behavior occurs during each activity.  A data chart which has the daily schedule and requires the adults to place tally marks each time the child leaves that activity. If you have an individual that leaves the group activity several times a day, you will want to record each and every time.

**uses a loud voice to communicate with adults when he is corrected~~this behavior may require some type of data collection which focuses on finding out why he is “yelling.”  An ABC data chart may be handy for this.  With an ABC data chart you can identify the Antecedent, Behavior and Consequence (ABC) for the behavior.  With an ABC data chart you would record what happened right before the behavior (ex. what did the teacher say when correcting his work), then you record the behavior (uses a loud voice to communicate with adults when he is corrected), next, you record the consequence.  The consequence is simply whatever happens after the child engages in the behavior (ex.  does the adult leave him alone, does the adult say something back, or does the adult ignore the yelling.)

**takes food from others plates during lunch, snack and at home~~this behavior may require some type of data collection which focuses on frequency.  You will want to record how many attempts the person has at taking food as well.  It may be helpful to collect data on what type of food the child is trying to take and what is already on his/her plate.  In addition, you may want to record the ABC’s of this behavior also, because you will want to know what the reaction of the adult is after the child takes the food.  This will be important in determining your function of the behavior.

**plays with fingers or pencil during work time~~this behavior may require some type of data collection which focuses on duration or intervals.  You will want to record how many reminders the adult needs to provide the child before he completes or focuses on the work or how long the child waits from the time the direction is given until he/she starts working.

 

NEXT STEP:

Click here for help with Types of data
Click here for help Identifying the Target Behavior.

 



Some people label more than 4 functions or reasons for behaviors. Sometimes it can be tricky to know exactly why a person is doing something. However, if you know why, you can come up with a correct response. You do not what to inadvertently reinforce the wrong behaviors. This page will highlight 4 of the most common. Individuals engage in a behavior because they usually find one of the following items reinforcing:

Escape/Avoidance of a Situation

(EX. Work, Uncomfortable clothes, loud noise, touching water)

Gaining Attention

(EX. from the adult, from another child)

Gaining a Tangible Item

(EX. food, toy, book, teacher’s materials)

Sensory Input

(EX. mouthing objects, spinning items, hands in ears)

These are some indicators that are typically evidence of one function or another.  This list is not limited to these items only, because students are individuals, sometimes a student’s behavior can have more than one function.

Escape Function

Indicators of escape/avoidance reinforcement could be:

The individual engages in the behavior when a task is presented.

The individual engages in the behavior when a new activity begins.

The individual engages in the behavior when a stimuli they view/perceive as aversive is presented.


The behavior ends when the student is allowed to leave the activity.

Gain Attention Function

Indicators of attention gained reinforcement could be:

Attention (words, eye contact, body language) reliably/usually follows the behavior.

The individual looks at or approaches a caregiver before engaging in the behavior.

The individual smiles just before engaging in the behavior.

Gain a Tangible Item Function

Indicators of access to a tangible item reinforcement could be:

The individual’s behavior ends when given the item or activity.

The individual asks for/requests the item.

The individual’s behaviors occur after it is clear that they cannot have the item they want.

The individual’s behavior occurs when the item is not presented fast enough.

Gain Sensory Input Function

Indicators of sensory reinforcement could be:

The individual would engage in the behavior even when other people are out of the room.

The individual appears to be engaging in the behavior because they need sensory input (ex. Pushing up against others, mouthing objects, squeezing others, banging tables, hands in ears, rolling on the floor, running around the room, getting up out of seat, etc.)

The individual appears to be enjoying the behavior, not aware of others around them, not being presented with a work activity, and not attempting to gain access to something.

The individual appears to be attempting to avoid a specific type of sensory input.

NEXT STEPS:
Click here for the Behavior Plan page.
Click here for the Strategies to Respond to Each Function Behavior Intervention Ideas page.

 

 

 

Behavior Support is most likely one of the main types of support educators, parents and family members are researching when they have an individuals that has challenging behaviors. Behavior Support is complicated and should be highly individualized to the needs of the individual. Many times you will need to get to and identify the root cause or function of the behavior behavior in order to develop a meaningful way to intervene. Antecedent Based Interventions strive to change the environment ahead of time to avoid the behaviors in the first place. Other methods many attempt to provide a communication method that takes the place of the behavior's message and says the same thing without the individual using the challenging behavior. Sometimes teaching appropriate behavior related skills can be a way to address the topic globally.  In either case, a clear understanding of what the behavior is, why the behavior occurs and what the plan is to address the behavior is needed. 

Behavior Support Links and Ideas